The differences between sole trader, partnership and limited company
Discover what each of these business types is and how it differs from the others.
When registering a business in the UK, you will need to choose a business type. Your choices are: a sole trader, a partnership or a limited company.
This decision will have huge financial and legal implications, so it’s important you choose the most suitable business type for you.
What is a sole trader?
If you are the sole owner of a business, you can operate as a sole trader. This is known as a sole proprietorship. It’s also accurate to label yourself as self-employed.
This is the easiest business type to register. All you have to do is register for self-assessment, which you can do via the government’s online registration online portal. The deadline for registration is 5 October of your second tax year, although it’s best to do this as soon as possible if you want to avoid large backdated tax bills.
As a sole trader, you’ll pay income tax and national insurance on your business earnings, the same as you would on your wages as an employee. The difference is: you’ll pay this every tax year after submitting your self-assessment tax form to HMRC. The online deadline for submitting your tax form is 31 January each year.
Sole traders remain personally liable for their business debts and business lawsuits, even if their company goes bust.
You can hire employees as a sole trader, but by definition, you can’t have a business partner.
- It’s simple to get started
- There’s little paperwork
- You have more flexibility to make structural changes to your business
- Potentially not as tax-efficient as incorporating
What is a partnership?
A partnership has the same rules as a sole proprietorship, except that your business income is split with a business partner or partner(s).
You’ll pay tax on your share of business income the same way as a sole trader would. You’ll be equally liable for business debts and lawsuits.
Many business owners benefit from shared responsibility and new ideas from a business partner.
If you’re a sole trader who wants to bring a business partner on board, it’s easy. You don’t even have to let HMRC know straight away, unless your business is VAT-registered. The change will be reflected in your self-assessment form for that tax year.
- You’ll benefit from a second pair of hands/ideas
- You split the business income
- You have to agree before making major changes to the business
What is a limited company?
When you set up a limited company (also known as incorporating), your business legally becomes a separate entity to you.
Business owners will own shares in a company, and pay themselves a wage from the company’s earnings. They’ll pay corporate tax, and may pay tax on their wages as well.
They won’t be held personally liable for business debts or commercial lawsuits. So, if your business goes under, creditors can’t claim what’s owed to them from your personal bank account.
The most common type is a limited company, where the shares are shared between business owners only.
When a company has been successful for a number of years, it may decide to sell shares to the public, making it a public limited company.
Limited company owners have to register their business at Companies House. Annual accounts and other basic information about your business must also be shared with Companies House each year.
- Likely to be more tax-efficient
- Limited personal liability for debts or legal problems
- A limited company can be seen as “more professional”
- You have the ability to raise funds by selling shares
- More paperwork
- Less privacy
- It’s more complicated to make structural changes to your business
What are the key differences?
New business owners face a choice between starting a limited company or a sole trader/partnership (depending on whether they have a partner or not).
A limited company is typically a tax-efficient option. Limited company owners have the option to sell shares in their company to investors, if they wish. On top of that, they are protected by limited liability for debts or legal issues. However, it is more complicated and expensive to set up, plus there is more paperwork and reporting involved each year.
Many business owners appreciate the simplicity of being a sole trader or partnership. It’s easier to get started, make structural changes to the company, and to close it down.
It’s possible to shift from a sole proprietorship/partnership to a limited company. It’s a lot harder to shift the other way around. There’s no need to share certain details about your company either.
The simple answer to this decision lies in whether you prefer a simple, flexible business structure, or a more efficient one which offers extra protection and potential tax benefits.
The latter requires more administration and it’s difficult to make changes, but it could be the sensible option for most serious business owners.
Compare business bank accounts
Once you have registered your business, you may need a business bank account to handle the financial operations. You can compare accounts below.
More guides on Finder
How much does it cost to start a business in the UK?
Learn how to calculate your costs before you start a business in the United Kingdom.
Sole trader loans
Find out how to get a loan if you work for yourself, including which lenders offer business loans for sole traders.
Loans for small businesses affected by coronavirus
Learn about government support and alternative options for businesses needing finance to help deal with the impact of coronavirus.
Great Furniture Trading Company discount codes and promos April 2021
See if you can get your next Great Furniture Trading Company order for less with our hand-tested voucher and promo codes.
What are SPACs?
SPACs are a unique way for companies to float on a stock exchange. Find out how they work and how SPACs differ from IPOs.
Compare joint business bank accounts
Discover how a joint business bank account works and why you might want to open one.
Compare the best business credit cards of 2021
Saving time on expense reports and streamlining your cash flow are just a couple of the many perks you could enjoy with a business credit card. Compare interest rates and check your eligibility today.
How to buy Bitcoin in the UK
Want to buy Bitcoin but don’t know where to start? This comprehensive guide provides step-by-step instructions on how and where to buy BTC in the UK.
Everything you need to know if you’re considering taking out a refurbishment loan to renovate an investment property, whether it’s for buy-to-let or to add value.
Ask an Expert