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Car insurance definitions and beginner’s glossary
Your A-Z guide to auto insurance terms and definitions.
It’s a lot easier to understand car insurance when you actually know what everything means. But there are so many uncommon words insurance companies use, from named insured to assigned risk. Use this glossary to help you brush up on insurance terms.
The definitions are intended to be generally useful rather than a guide to a specific policy or insurer. Contact your car insurance company for any specific definitions and what they might mean for your policy.
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- Accident. An unintentional incident that results in damage to your vehicle. For example, if you slide on ice and drive into a tree, or if you have a crash into another car.
- Actual cash value (ACV). How much your car was worth before an accident, including depreciation. Used to decide your payout after a claim.
- Actuary. A specialist who calculates risk, especially as it relates to insurance-related situations like life expectancy, accident frequency and loss reserving.
- Additional insured. A licensed driver who is a member of the policyholder’s household and is covered as a driver on the policy.
- Adjuster. An individual employed by an insurance company to settle claims filed by policyholders or claimants. The adjuster analyzes each claim, then makes a payment to the claimant based on the coverage outlined in the policy contract.
- Agent. An agent assists customers in finding appropriate insurance coverage. Agents can either be captive — meaning they work exclusively for one provider — or they can be independent. Independent agents can help you select insurance offered by multiple insurance providers.
- Agreed value/Market value. Agreed value is when a car is insured at a specific sum insured. Market value is when a car is insured at its current reasonable market value, including depreciation. Many insurers will let you choose between either of the coverage types, while some might only offer one or the other.
- Anti-theft device. Any device that reduces the chance of a car being stolen. For example, steering wheel immobilizers or theft alarms.
- Appraisal. A formal estimation of the value of property. Damage appraisals are usually completed by an insurance adjuster or vehicle repair specialist.
- Assigned risk plan. State-sponsored insurance policy for drivers who can’t get coverage elsewhere.
- At-fault accident. This is a car accident that you caused. Liability insurance will cover you in this instance.
- Automobile insurance. This is an agreement between you and your insurance company that in exchange for a set monthly premium, your provider will pay for possible future damage, injury or loss.
- Benefit. The amount you’re paid after making a car insurance claim.
- Binder. Temporary proof of insurance provided by your insurance company while you’re still in the underwriting process.
- Bodily injury. A physical injury occurring to you or another driver.
- Broad form. Insurance that covers you and your car against any peril without many exclusions.
- Broad form collision. A type of broad form insurance that covers damage to your car even when you’re at fault.
- Bundling. Also referred to as a multi-policy discount, it is a discount for holding multiple policies or coverage types with the same insurer. For example, if you have home insurance and car insurance with the same provider.
- Car insurance quote. This is an estimate of how much a provider may charge you for your car insurance coverage based on your personal details and coverage selections.
- Car rental coverage. A policy feature that covers some or all of the costs of a rental car while your car is being repaired or replaced following a claim.
- Carrier. Carrier is another word for an insurance provider.
- Claim. This is when you ask the insurer to make a payout in line with your policy terms.
- Claimant. The person who submits a claim for an incurred loss.
- CLUE report. Also know as a comprehensive loss underwriting exchange report, this official document includes the past seven years of your auto and property claims, usually reviewed during the underwriting process.
- Combined single limit. Also known as CSL, combined single limit is a set number that is the combined limit for bodily injury liability coverage and property damage liability coverage per incident.
- Collateral. Assets given to a lender until a loan is repaid. If the borrower defaults, the lender has the legal right to seize the collateral. Comprehensive and collision coverages are required by lenders when a car is the collateral for a loan.
- Collision coverage. This covers damage to your car caused by a car accident. It is usually optional. However, if you finance or lease your car, the lender might require it.
- Commercial car insurance. Commercial car insurance covers situations and usage not covered by a personal car insurance policy. It covers cars, vans and trucks used for business purposes.
- Comprehensive coverage. The type of car insurance that offers the widest range of damage coverage. Typically this is the only type of car insurance that will pay out in the event of a car accident with the exception of other policy types that might cover accidents caused by uninsured drivers.
- Covered incident/loss. This is damage to your car that your insurance provider will cover.
- Damage/Loss. The result of an incident. Depending on the type of car insurance, you might be claiming for different types of damage. For example, liability covers injury damages, while comprehensive car insurance can cover damage to your car. Loss can refer to the cost of the damage.
- Declarations page. The section of an insurance contract detailing information like the name, description and location of insured property; personal information of the policyholders; period for which the policy is in effect; premiums payable; and the amount of coverage. Also called a binder.
- Deductible. The amount you need to pay towards a claim before your insurer covers the rest. For example, if you get in an accident that caused $3,000 in damage and you have a $500 deductible, you’ll need to pay $500 to your insurer or repair shop before your insurer covers the other $2,500.
- Depreciation. When a car (or other item) becomes less valuable over time. For example, it’s said that as soon as you drive a new car off the lot it’s worth about 20% less than it used to be. This is depreciation. Not all cars will depreciate. Collector’s items or limited edition vehicles might actually increase in value over time. This is known as appreciation.
- Discount. Lowered car insurance premiums. For example, a discount might take the form of 10% lower premiums per month.
- Drive less pay less. Also known as pay as you drive car insurance, this is a policy type that lets you enjoy lower premiums if you drive less distance per year.
- Driving record. A history of your driving. For example, recent traffic tickets and previous accidents. Your driving record can affect your car insurance premiums.
- DUI – Driving Under the Influence. Driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol. This is one of the most severe driving actions you can receive, and will likely result in a suspension or termination of your license.
- Duty of disclosure. Your obligation to let insurers know about anything which increases the risk they take in offering you coverage. For example, if you have previously had a suspended driver’s license then you may need to inform insurers of this.
- DWI – Driving Without Insurance. Some sources suggest that DWI stands for driving while impaired, but in this case, DWI refers to driving without insurance. This is a major infraction in which drivers can be charged for driving without adequate or valid car insurance.
- Effective date. This is the date your coverage begins.
- Endorsement. Endorsements are add-ons to your insurance policy.
- Exclusions. Things that aren’t covered by your car insurance. For example, drunk driving or disobeying the road rules are common exclusions. This means an insurer may not pay out for claims resulting from drunk driving, disobeying road rules or other exclusions.
- Extras/options. Additional coverage features, such as replacement locks and keys, coverage for a trailer that is being towed by the insured vehicle, and more. These might be available as free extras, or optional extras that you can add to your policy at extra cost.
- (At) fault. The at-fault party in an accident is the one who is found to be responsible for it. If another driver was at fault for an accident then you may not have to pay a deductible for your claim in some situations. Note that you might be found at fault, regardless of how an accident happened, if you fail to get the other driver’s name, address, license and contact details.
- (Third-party) fire and theft. The coverage type that insures your vehicle with third party liability coverage, as well as fire and theft damage.
- Free look period. This is a period of time, usually up to 30 days, after buying a policy where you can change your mind for a full refund, minus processing fees.
- FR-44. Similar to an SR-22, this certificate of financial responsibility is required after a driving conviction before you can legally drive in your state. Unlike a more general SR-22, an FR-44 is specific to DUI or DWI convictions.
- Full coverage. This term can be misleading. It does not mean that you are covered for any and all incidents. Full coverage includes liability, collision and comprehensive.
- Grace period. Some providers offer a grace period that allows customers to make a payment after the due date. However, many companies won’t accept a payment after the date shown on a cancellation notice.
- Gap insurance. A type of insurance policy that pays the difference between the cash value of a vehicle and the outstanding loan amount. Some gap policies may also cover the amount of the deductible.
- Hybrid electric vehicles. Hybrids, HEVs or hybrid-electrics are powered by a combo of gas and an electric battery.
- ID card. This is a document that proves you have insurance. You must carry it with you when you are driving. It is usually the size of a credit card, and sometimes can be saved to a smartphone.
- Indemnity. The guiding principle of all insurance contracts. The objective of insurance is to restore the insured to the same financial position they were in prior to a loss.
- Independent agent. This is a person who helps you locate the insurance policy that best fits your needs. They do not work for a specific provider.
- Insured. This is the person who is covered by the insurance policy.
- Insurer. The company that you buy the policy from. This is not always the same as the underwriter but will be in some cases.
- Joint underwriting association. A state-based, nonprofit risk pool to support high-risk individuals who need coverage. Risk is shared among multiple insurers.
- Kit car. Replica cars or kit cars is a DIY car assembled from a group of prepackaged parts plus components from other cars.
- Lapse. The expiration of a right or privilege when one party does not live up to its obligations during the allotted time. A lapse in auto insurance coverage may result in paying higher premiums for a new policy. This is because drivers who maintain continuous coverage are less likely to make an insurance claim compared to those who let a policy lapse.
- Letter of experience. A document from a previous insurer that shows your record as a policyholder.
- Liability. One’s legal obligation to pay for or otherwise compensate another party for damage or loss. This can be covered by car insurance. See third party property car insurance for more information.
- Liability insurance. The minimum amount of car insurance that’s required in all states except New Hamshire and Virginia. Liability insurance will cover the cost of repairing any third party property damaged by an accident along with medical bills from resulting injuries.
- Lien holder. This is the financial institution or dealership that provided the loan for your car.
- Limits. The maximum amounts that an insurer will pay for injuries, property damage or other covered incidents.
- Market value/agreed value. Agreed value is when a car is insured at a specific sum insured. Market value is when a car is insured at its current reasonable market value, including depreciation. Many insurers will let you choose between either of the cover types, while some might only offer one or the other.
- Medical payments coverage. This will cover the costs of injury to you or your passengers, no matter who is at fault.
- Modifications. Aftermarket upgrades or changes to your vehicle that were not offered by the manufacturer. For example, if you install your own sound system rather than use the one provided by the manufacturer.
- Motor Vehicle Report (MVR). Record of moving violations and license status.
- Multi-policy discount. A commonly found discount for holding multiple policies or coverage types from the same insurer. For example, if you have home insurance and car insurance with the same provider.
- New car replacement. A policy term that can replace your vehicle with a brand new equivalent, or identical model if your insured car is written off. This policy term is usually only available when insuring a brand new vehicle, and will only be available for the first 12 or 24 months of the policy.
- No claims bonus. A discount for not making any at-fault claims. It usually grows over time and reaches its limits after several years of continuous coverage. Not all insurers offer this discount.
- No-fault. A policy that covers your losses, no matter who’s at fault in an accident.
- Nominated (listed) driver. The person listed as the driver on your car insurance policy, and the person whose risk factors primarily determine the premiums. Sometimes you might have more than one listed driver.
- Non-owner’s insurance. This is a policy for drivers who do not own a car but drive regularly. It is sometimes necessary if you are required to have an SR-22.
- Overinsurance. When the sum insured of a car is more than its actual value. A policy will typically not pay more than the actual cost of damage, so overinsurance means you’re probably paying too much for coverage.
- Pay as you drive. Also known as drive less pay less car insurance, this is a policy type that lets you enjoy lower premiums if you drive less distance per year.
- Personal injury coverage. Insurance that can cover or help with the cost of injuries, disability or even death. Also called personal injury protection (PIP).
- Personal insurance. Any type of insurance that covers an individual, such as car, home, life or travel insurance.
- Personal property coverage. A policy feature that pays out for damage to your personal property kept in the car that was damaged in a claimable event. Sometimes referred to as valuables coverage.
- Policy. The insurance contract that you sign up for, and whose terms you agree with. This is the actual product that you buy when you get car insurance and the named benefits you’ll receive after covered situations.
- Policyholder. The person who owns the car insurance policy. Typically the policyholder will be the car’s owner and the main driver. The policyholder is the only person who can adjust the terms and conditions of the coverage. There might be more than one policyholder per policy.
- Policy term. This is the length of time that your policy provides coverage, usually six months or a year.
- Premium. The ongoing cost of maintaining your car insurance policy. The premium might be the price per month, or the price per year, depending on how often you pay your car insurance premiums.
- Primary use. This is how you most use your car. For example, for business or commuting for pleasure.
- Price matching. When an insurer offers to match or beat a competitor’s price.
- Quote. This is an estimate provided by the insurance company for how much you will pay for your insurance.
- Rating. Drivers get a rating that determines what kind of premium they might get. Insurers consider factors such as type of car, driving record, age and so on.
- Regular driver. This is the person who drives a car most. If a policy lets you nominate a driver, then the regular drivers will generally be the nominated drivers. A policy that doesn’t let you nominate drivers will also typically differentiate between regular and occasional drivers.
- Renewal. This is when your current policy is coming to an end and will be re-evaluated for renewal.
- Repairs. This can specifically refer to the repairs carried out by an insurer following a claim. Sometimes not all damage will be repaired under a policy. For example, an insurer might repair a car’s bodywork, but not cover wheels or tires, depending on the situation.
- Replacement vehicle. A vehicle that you’re using while your vehicle is being repaired. It might be a borrowed car or a rental, for example. Policies will often specify that a replacement vehicle is covered under your policy in the same way as your original car. Or it might be a new car that you’re getting following the sale or writing off of an old one.
- Residual value. The expected value of an asset at the end of a specified period, such as the value of a car at the end of a lease.
- Risk. In insurance, this can specifically refer to the chance of you making a claim and how much it’s likely to cost. This directly affects your premiums. Your risk factors include things like age, the type of car you drive and how much it costs.
- Safety features. This can broadly refer to any safety features you might find in a vehicle, like seatbelts or airbags. But these days it might more commonly refer to electronic safety and crash avoidance features, like back up cameras, automatic emergency braking and other technologies. Having more of these crash-avoiding safety features in your car can reduce the risk, and lead to lower premiums.
- SR-22. A document that demonstrates proof of financial responsibility for persons convicted of certain traffic violations. They are often mandatory after license suspensions or other major driving infractions.
- SR-50. This is a form sometimes required in Indiana. It states your insurance start and end date.
- State required minimum. This is the minimum amount of insurance coverage required by law in your state.
- Substitute car. See replacement car.
- Third party. A third party can refer to anyone else who’s involved in an incident but doesn’t otherwise have any real connection to you. A third party might be a pedestrian you hit or another driver you’ve rear-ended. “Third party liability” refers to your liability for damaging a third party’s property.
- Third party property coverage. This type of car insurance can pay for damage caused by your vehicle to other people’s property. Sometimes it will also include “uninsured driver coverage,” which can pay out in the event of a driver without liability insurance of their own damaging your car.
- Traffic or moving violation. The act of violating a traffic law, which may or may not result in a ticket. Infractions include running a red light, speeding, and so on.
- Traffic violation points. After repeated or severe traffic violations, you may receive traffic violation points on top of a fine. These points assess the severity of an infraction and may lead to increased insurance premiums or even a suspended or revoked license.
- Umbrella insurance. This is additional coverage that will cover costs that exceed your basic liability coverage.
- Underinsurance. This is when your coverage limit is less than the value of your car. In the event of a total loss, you might not get paid out the full value of the car.
- Underwriter. This is the actual insurance company that calculates the risks and writes the policies. The underwriters create the actual insurance products, while the insurers are the companies that sell them. Sometimes the underwriter and the insurer might be the same company. Other times they might be different.
- Underinsured motorist coverage. Provides coverage if you’re in an accident with an at-fault driver whose liability limits are too low to cover the damage or medical expenses.
- Uninsured driver. A driver without third-party property damage car insurance of their own.
- Uninsured motorist coverage.Protects you if you’re in an accident with an at-fault driver who doesn’t carry liability insurance.
- Valuables. Property kept inside your car, such as watches, handbags and other items which might be covered as “personal belongings” by a car insurance policy.
- Vanishing deductible. A policy feature that allows your deductible to decrease by a given amount, usually $100, for every year without an accident or claim. With a $500 vanishing deductible and two years of no accidents, your deductible for your next claim would be $300.
- Vehicle identification number (VIN). A unique identifying number you can find on every vehicle. Like your car’s Social Security number, the VIN can be used to track stolen cars, trace a car’s history and identify an individual car among others of its make and model.
- Write-off. This is when the cost of repairs exceeds the value of the car. If a car is written off, an insurer will typically opt not to repair it but will instead just pay you the coverage amount and close the policy.
- Windshield and glass damage. This is exactly what it sounds like; damage to your car windshield, windows or mirrors. Some policies will offer an option for no-deductible windshield and glass replacements. Typically, in order to actually claim for a broken window, it needs to have suffered significant damage. Policies will usually define this as a complete breakage, a crack that stretches a certain length, or a crack of any length the goes through the entire thickness of the window or windshield. A chip or small crack to one layer of the glass might not be claimable on car insurance, even with this option.
- XS (excess policy). Covers you for loss and damage in excess of another amount or policy.
- Young driver. This usually refers to drivers under the age of 25.
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