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Federal income tax brackets for the 2023 tax year

What to know about state and federal taxes — including ways to lower what you owe

The US uses a progressive tax system under which the more you make, the more you pay. But how much you pay depends on your tax filing status. And every year, the IRS tweaks its tax brackets to adjust for inflation.

Use the charts below to see how much you’ll owe for the 2023 tax year, due Monday, April 15, 2024, and explore top tips for reducing your tax bill.

Single

2024 federal income tax brackets

Tax rateTaxable incomeTaxes owed
10%$0 to $11,60010% of taxable income
12%$11,601 to $47,150$1,100 plus 12% of the amount over $11,000
22%$47,151 to $100,525$5,147 plus 22% of the amount over $44,725
24%$100,526 to $191,950$16,290 plus 24% of the amount over $95,375
32%$191,951 to $243,725$37,104 plus 32% of the amount over $182,100
35%$243,726 to $609,350$52,832 plus 35% of the amount over $231,250
37%$609,351+$174,238.25 plus 37% of the amount over $578,125

2023 federal income tax brackets

Tax rateTaxable incomeTaxes owed
10%$0 to $11,00010% of taxable income
12%$11,001 to $44,725$1,100 plus 12% of the amount over $11,000
22%$44,726 to $95,375$5,147 plus 22% of the amount over $44,725
24%$95,376 to $182,100$16,290 plus 24% of the amount over $95,375
32%$182,101 to $231,250$37,104 plus 32% of the amount over $182,100
35%$231,251 to $578,125$52,832 plus 35% of the amount over $231,250
37%$578,126+$174,238.25 plus 37% of the amount over $578,125

Married filing separately

2024 federal income tax brackets

Tax rateTaxable incomeTaxes owed
10%$0 to $11,00010% of taxable income
12%$11,001 to $44,725$1,100 plus 12% of the amount over $11,000
22%$44,726 to $95,375$5,147 plus 22% of the amount over $44,725
24%$95,376 to $182,100$16,290 plus 24% of the amount over $95,375
32%$182,101 to $231,250$37,104 plus 32% of the amount over $182,100
35%$231,251 to $346,875$52,832 plus 35% of the amount over $231,250
37%$346,876+$93,300.75 plus 37% of the amount over $346,875

2023 federal income tax brackets

Tax rateTaxable incomeTaxes owed
10%$0 to $11,00010% of taxable income
12%$11,001 to $44,725$1,100 plus 12% of the amount over $11,000
22%$44,726 to $95,375$5,147 plus 22% of the amount over $44,725
24%$95,376 to $182,100$16,290 plus 24% of the amount over $95,375
32%$182,101 to $231,250$37,104 plus 32% of the amount over $182,100
35%$231,251 to $346,875$52,832 plus 35% of the amount over $231,250
37%$346,876+$93,300.75 plus 37% of the amount over $346,875

Married filing jointly

This bracket includes surviving spouses.

2024 federal income tax brackets

Tax rateTaxable incomeTaxes owed
10%Not over $11,60010% of the taxable income
12%Over $11,600 but not over $47,150$1,160 plus 12% of the excess over $11,600
22%Over $47,150 but not over $100,525$5,426 plus 22% of the excess over $47,150
24%Over $100,525 but not over $191,950$17,168.50 plus 24% of the excess over $100,525
32%Over $191,950 but not over $243,725$39,110.50 plus 32% of the excess over $191,950
35%Over $243,725 but not over $365,600$55,678.50 plus 35% of the excess over $243,725
37%Over $365,600$98,334.75 plus 37% of the excess over $365,600

2023 federal income tax brackets

Tax rateTaxable incomeTaxes owed
10%$0 to $22,00010% of taxable income
12%$22,001 to $89,450$2,200 plus 12% of the amount over $22,000
22%$89,451 to $190,750$10,294 plus 22% of the amount over $89,450
24%$190,751 to $364,200$32,580 plus 24% of the amount over $190,750
32%$364,201 to $462,500$74,208 plus 32% of the amount over $364,200
35%$462,501 to $693,750$105,664 plus 35% of the amount over $462,500
37%$693,751+$186,601.50 plus 37% of the amount over $693,750

2024 federal income tax brackets

Tax rateTaxable incomeTaxes owed
10%$0 to $16,55010% of the taxable income
12%$16,551 to $63,100$1,655 plus 12% of the excess over $16,550
22%$63,101 to $100,500$7,241 plus 22% of the excess over $63,100
24%$100,501 to $191,950$15,469 plus 24% of the excess over $100,500
32%$191,951 to $243,700$37,417 plus 32% of the excess over $191,950
35%$243,701 to $609,350$53,977 plus 35% of the excess over $243,700
37%$609,351+$181,954.50 plus 37% of the excess over $609,350

2023 federal income tax brackets

Tax rateTaxable incomeTaxes owed
10%$0 to $15,70010% of taxable income
12%$15,701 to $59,850$1,570 plus 12% of the amount over $15,700
22%$59,851 to $95,350$6,868 plus 22% of the amount over $59,850
24%$95,351 to $182,100$14,678 plus 24% of the amount over $95,350
32%$182,101 to $231,250$35,498 plus 32% of the amount over $182,100
35%$231,251 to $578,100$51,226 plus 35% of the amount over $231,250
37%$578,101+$172,623.50 plus 37% of the amount over $578,100

How do tax brackets work?

Contrary to popular belief, being in a tax bracket doesn’t mean you pay a flat percentage on your total income. The federal government breaks your income into chunks, and you pay a marginal tax rate for each chunk. That means different parts of your income gets taxed a different rate.

For example, if you’re a single tax filer who made $60,000 in 2023, you’ll pay a 10% tax on the first $11,000 you made, 12% of the amount ranging from $11,001 to $47,150 and 22% on the remaining income up to $60,000 when you file in 2024.

Tax rateTax bracketTaxes owed
10%$0 to $11,000$1,100
12%$11,001 to $47,150$4,337.88
22%$47,151 to $60,000$2,826.78
24%Not applicable
32%Not applicable
35%Not applicable
37%Not applicable
Total taxes owed$8,264.66

Your marginal tax rate is the highest tax rate applied to your income, whereas your effective tax rate is the overall percentage of your income that goes to taxes. So, while your marginal tax rate is 22%, you didn’t pay 22% in taxes on your entire income. Instead, your effective tax rate is about 14% ($8,264 / $60,000).

Recent changes to tax brackets

Each year, the taxable income limits increase slightly due to inflation. But the tax rates themselves usually stay the same — unless there’s a tax reform, like the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act that passed in 2018.

The act lowered the federal income tax rates and increased the income thresholds within each bracket. Now, the highest earners are taxed at a 37% rate instead of a 39.6% rate, and you can generally earn more income before you’re pushed into a higher bracket.

State tax brackets

States have the freedom to structure their tax brackets however they want. Some states offer a progressive tax rate, where the more you make, the more you pay. Others have a flat tax rate, and a few don’t have income tax at all.

States with no income tax:

  • Alaska
  • Florida
  • New Hampshire
  • Nevada
  • South Dakota
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • Washington
  • Wyoming

States with a flat-rate tax:

  • Arizona
  • Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Kentucky
  • Massachusetts
  • Michigan
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • Pennsylvania
  • Utah

States with progressive tax rates:

  • Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • California
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • Georgia
  • Hawaii
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Louisiana
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Montana
  • Nebraska
  • New Jersey
  • New Mexico
  • New York
  • North Dakota
  • Ohio
  • Oklahoma
  • Oregon
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • Vermont
  • Virginia
  • Washington, DC
  • West Virginia
  • Wisconsin

How to lower your tax bracket

You can minimize the taxes you pay through credits, deductions and tax-deferred savings contributions.

Tax credits

Tax credits lower your tax bill dollar-for-dollar. If you have a $3,000 tax bill but qualify for $1,000 in credits, your bill is reduced to $2,000.

Common tax credits include:

  • Child tax credit
  • Earned income tax credit
  • American opportunity tax credit (education credit)
  • Electric car tax credit
  • Saver’s credit

Tax deductions

Tax deductions lower your taxable income dollar-for-dollar, which could drop you into a lower tax bracket. Common items you can write off on your taxes include charitable contributions, medical expenses, mortgage interest, property taxes, states and local income taxes, business expenses and more.

Want to calculate how much a deduction will save you in taxes? Use your highest income tax bracket as a guide. For example, if your highest tax bracket is 24%, a $1,000 deduction may trim $240 off your tax bill.

Tax-deferred savings contributions

Anytime you save money in a taxed-deferred retirement or health savings account, it lowers your taxable income. So, one of the easiest ways to reduce your taxable income is to max out your retirement accounts. For example, if you make $60,000 a year and contribute $19,500 to your 401(k), your taxable income drops to $40,500.

The same goes for HSAs. If you have a high-deductible healthcare plan, open a health savings plan and contribute as much as you can. For the 2023 tax year, the maximum limit is $3,850 for individual plans and $7,750 for family plans. For 2024, individuals can contribute up to $4,150, and families can contribute up to $8,300.

Bottom line

The way our current federal tax system is set up, the more income you earn, the more you pay in taxes. But just because you’re in one tax bracket doesn’t mean all your income is taxed at that rate. Instead, your income is broken up into chunks, and you pay a different rate for each one.

Regardless of which bracket you fall in, there are proven ways you can lower your tax bill each year thanks to deductions and credits. Wondering which tax deductions you may qualify for? Check out our guide on income tax deductions.

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