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Face masks: Everything you need to know
Your hub for buying, wearing and latest news. Plus the latest updates for your local area.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises the public to wear face masks or covers in public where social distancing measures are difficult to maintain.
There are many options available to the general public including N95 or KN95 masks, cloth masks and surgical or disposable masks. Our guides offer to help you purchase, use or create your own masks while keeping you up to date on the latest updates from your state or county.
Wednesday, May 27: Beginning Friday, all Virginians will be required to wear face masks while inside any public space and wherever large groups can congregate. The mandate extends to children age 10 and over, but exceptions will be made for those eating and drinking at restaurants, exercising or with health conditions.
Wednesday, May 20: As President Trump prepares to tour a Ford Motor Co. factory Thursday, Michigan Attorney General Dana Nessel has stated that Trump has a legal obligation to wear a face mask. Nessel cited the state’s face mask law and urged the president to respect the efforts of Ford employees. Trump has yet to wear a mask despite federal recommendations and mandates.
Thursday, May 14: The latest California city to pass a new face mask ordinance is Arvin. Officials now require employees of local businesses as well as city employees to wear masks while at work.
Thursday, May 14: The state of New Mexico now requires the use of face masks by all people in all public spaces. The new ordinance expands upon previous measures that included employees of essential businesses.
Wednesday, May 13: Philadelphia, Mississippi becomes the first city in the state to require the wearing of face masks. The ordinance mandates their use inside of any city building.
Wednesday, May 13: Palo Alto joins the growing list of California cities requiring residents to wear face masks while inside of businesses and on public transportation. The law does not apply to those exercising in outdoor spaces.
Tuesday, May 12: Seattle and the rest of King County join the growing list of regions requiring the use of face masks. King County’s ordinance requires residents to wear face coverings while on public transit and inside of businesses. The mandate extends to outdoor areas where social distancing isn’t possible.
Tuesday, May 12: As Nashville gradually begins to reopen businesses throughout the city, a new ordinance requires all public-facing workers to wear face masks. Outside of the requirement, health officials are also encouraging the general public to wear face coverings.
Monday, May 11: Singapore Airlines and Silkair join a growing list of international airlines now requiring the use of face masks while on board. Additionally, passengers flying to Singapore must undergo temperature checks and a verbal health declaration before boarding.
Monday, May 11: The Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (Sea-Tac) will begin requiring all travelers and airport employees to wear face masks beginning May 18. The move is in lockstep with similar restrictions enforced at other major airports throughout the country.
Monday, May 11: Los Angeles has stepped up its mask ordinance, now requiring the use of face coverings at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). The new requirement also extends to travelers on busses and trains within the city.
Friday, May 8: Piggybacking off an existing mask order for employees of essential businesses and restaurants or retail spaces of 50,000-square-feet or more, New Mexico Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham will extend the order to employees of all essential businesses acting as retail on May 11.
Friday, May 8: In response to shrinking profits and general public concern about the spread of COVID-19, rideshare company Lyft has made face masks mandatory for both drivers and passengers.
Thursday, May 7: In an effort to move Sacramento’s mask ordinance from voluntary to mandatory, the city’s mayor is urging county health officials to take action. The issue will be addressed directly during May 12 meetings and beyond.
Thursday, May 7: Fresno, California, mayor Lee Brand has issued a shelter-in-place order tthat will remain in effect through May 31. The order also requires the wearing of face masks at all essential businesses and public places.
Wednesday, May 6: As business and restaurant restrictions in Alachua County, Florida, begin to loosen, all residents age 2 and up are now required to wear face masks in places where social distancing isn’t possible. Any violation of the policy will be considered a second-degree misdemeanor.
Wednesday, May 6: Rhode Island Governor Gina Raimondo is set to sign an order requiring face masks for all residents in public. The order extends a previous face mask requirement for essential workers. The order is expected to go into effect on Friday, May 8.
Monday, May 4: Outside of the US, a growing number of countries are enforcing their own face mask ordinances. Aljazeera has the breakdown.
Monday, May 4: Following over a dozen standalone restrictions in counties throughout the state, Massachusetts governor Charlie Baker announced Monday a statewide mask ordinance. Effective May 6, all people over the age of two must wear face masks or coverings in public spaces when social distancing isn’t an option.
Friday, May 1: San Diego County joins the majority of Southern California in requiring face coverings in public. The order applies to those ages 3 or older in public transportation, businesses and anywhere you’re unable to maintain at least 6 feet of distance between people. Violators risk getting turned away with the possibility of fines.
Friday, May 1: A growing number of US airlines are following JetBlue’s lead by requiring passengers and flight crew to wear face masks from the time of check in through deplaning. Joining JetBlue in the initiative are American, United, Delta, Frontier and Alaska.
Thursday, April 30: Officials in Salt Lake County announced Wednesday that face masks will be required for employees of most businesses as the county prepares to reopen on May 1. Some businesses specializing in “personal services” such as hair salons and tattoo shops will require both customers and employees to wear face masks.
Thursday, April 30: Beginning May 4, retail giant Costco will require all patrons over the age of two to wear face masks or face coverings while shopping. The move follows similar ordinances from Walmart, Publix, Kroger and other retailers.
Thursday, April 30: Maine governor Janet Mills has issued a statewide ordinance requiring the use of face masks in all public spaces and while using public transportation or rideshares. The restrictions will be in effect from May 1 through May 31.
Wednesday, April 29: Washington, DC governor Muriel Bowser today extended the District’s state of emergency and public health emergency through May 15. The ordinance requires face mask usage in most public spaces and extends various safety measures to vulnerable populations in assisted living facilities and nursing homes.
Wednesday, April 29: Birmingham becomes the first city in Alabama to require face coverings in public places or face penalties that include fines of up to $500 and 30 days in municipal jail. The requirement goes into effect May 1st.
Wednesday, April 29: Monterey joins the growing list of California counties requiring the public to wear face coverings when in public. The measure extends to essential businesses, including healthcare services and public transportation, effective Thursday, April 30th.
Wednesday, April 29: Beginning May 4, JetBlue will require all passengers and flight attendants to wear masks while checking in, boarding, mid-flight and deplaning. JetBlue is the first U.S. airline to enforce the measure.
Tuesday, April 28: The cities of Cambridge and Peabody in Massachusetts join Somerville in imposing fines of $300 to $1,000 for violating the cities’ orders to wear a face covering when in public.
Tuesday, April 28: Maine’s Portland City Council voted to extend the city’s stay-at-home order and newly require public-facing employees to wear face coverings or masks, effective Thursday, April 30. The city joins Brunswick in efforts to curb the spread of the coronavirus.
Tuesday, April 28: Kentucky governor Andy Beshear announced Monday that state residents have two weeks to start wearing masks while inside of a business. The ordinance will take effect on May 11 and extends to both patrons and employees as the state ramps up efforts to reopen.
Tuesday, April 28: The Aspen City Council has passed a resolution making it mandatory to wear a face covering while in Aspen city limits. The ordinance begins April 20 and will be in effect until at least May 27.
Monday, April 27: The mayor of Somerville, a city northwest of Boston, announced on Monday an order requiring face masks when in public spaces, including shared entrances at apartment complexes, on sidewalks, at grocery stores and when exercising outdoors. Violators face a $300 fine.
Monday, April 27: As the state gears up to reopen manufacturing, distribution, construction and general offices on May 4, Ohio Governor Mike DeWine is requiring face masks for all employees and customers. Consumer and retail businesses are expected to reopen May 12.
Monday, April 27: Delaware governor John Carney has issued the 13th modification of the declaration of a State of Emergency. Effective April 28, the order requires all people over the age of 12 to wear masks in public places throughout the state.
Friday, April 24: Michigan’s stay-at-home order has been extended to May 15 and now mandates all residents of the state to wear face coverings over the mouth and nose when in public. The order goes into effect starting April 26 at 11:59 p.m. and stops short of criminal penalties for violators.
Friday, April 24: Illnois Governor JB Pritzker extended disparate city ordinances into a statewide order requiring face masks or coverings for people over the age of 2 when in public and unable to maintain 6-foot social distancing, including indoor spaces like stores. The order goes into effect on Friday, May 1, and is expected to last through the end of May.
Friday, April 24: In a series of cascading city ordinances in California, Santa Cruz County has issued an order requiring face coverings for people over the age of 2 when conducting business in public, including indoors, in line or at a drive-up window and on public transportation. People who don’t follow the order risk a misdemeanor charge and a fine. The order goes into effect at 11:59 p.m. Friday.
Friday, April 24: El Paso County officials have issued an emergency order requiring face coverings for people over the age of 2 when outside their homes or residences. Exceptions include those who have trouble breathing, are exercising outdoors or within 6 feet of people in their household. The order is in effect as of Friday at 12:01 a.m. and further restricts gatherings, access to nursing homes and assisted living facilities and use of hike and bike trails.
Thursday, April 23: Harris County Judge Lina Hidalgo announced on Wednesday an order requiring face coverings for people over the age of 10 when out in public or among people they don’t live with. Anybody caught without a covering over the nose and mouth risks a fine of up to $1,000. The ordinance takes effect on Monday, April 27, for an expected 30 days.
Wednesday, April 22: Six counties in the Bay Area that make up about five million people – Sonoma, San Francisco, San Mateo, Alameda, Contra Costa and Marin – have announced orders to require mask-wearing starting Wednesday.
Tuesday, April 21: Orange County joins a growing list of California counties requiring face masks or coverings for employees at retail businesses that include grocery stores, gas stations and restaurants. The mandate goes into effect on Friday, April 24.
Monday, April 20: Hawaii residents must wear a face masks when in public places, using public transportation and ordering at a drive-through. Violators could face up a $5,000 fine or up to a year in prison, according to Governor David Ige’s order.
Monday, April 20: Several Bay Area counties join neighboring counties already requiring the public to wear facial coverings or masks in public, including in essential businesses and on public transit. The ordinance is effective as of Friday, with enforcement going into effect on Wednesday, April 22, at 8 a.m.
Monday, April 20: Connecticut residents over the age of two must wear a face mask in public if they cannot maintain six feet of distance from others, effective April 20. Employees and customers of any age must also wear face masks inside essential businesses.
Saturday, April 18: Essential workers in Rhode Island must wear a cloth face mask while working, unless they are able to maintain six feet of distance from others. Businesses are to provide facial coverings to employees.
Friday, April 17: Governor Andrew Cuomo’s executive order requiring New Yorkers to wear face coverings over their nose and mouth when in a public place. The ordinance includes anybody over the age of 2 and able to medically tolerate a mask. The order goes into effect on Friday, April 17, at 8 p.m.
Friday, April 17: Sonoma County Public Health Officer Dr. Sundari Masi signed an order that states the public wear facial coverings before entering indoor facilities other than their homes, any enclosed open spaces or while outdoors and unable to maintain at least six feet of distance between people. The ordinance includes children ages 2 and older. The order goes into effect on Friday, April 17, at 12:01 a.m.
Thursday, April 16: Officials in Missouri report a recall of KN95 face masks the state paid $17 million for that don’t appear to meet Illinois Department of Health performance standards.
Wednesday, April 15: Pennsylvania state health secretary signed an order Wednesday that states all essential businesses that are open during coronavirus must turn away customers who are not wearing masks. The order establishes other safety protocols for businesses to try to continue operating safely. The order goes into effect on Sunday, April 19, at 8 p.m. Read the full text from Dr. Rachel Levine.
Wednesday, April 14: Governor Gina Raimondo signed emergency declaration requiring face masks in public settings where social distancing measurs are difficult to maintain. Employers must also provide employees with face masks or the materials to make one.
Wednesday, April 8: New Jersey became the first state to order that all customers and employees wear a face mask while inside essential businesses, on construction sites and using public transportation. Businesses are to turn away customers who do not comply.
Thursday, April 2: Online giant Amazon has announced that it is no longer accepting public orders for N95 face masks in its effort to prioritize essential supplies, including coronavirus tests, to hospitals and government agencies. It’s also forgoing a profit from such sales.
Top stores for masks in May 2020
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Top product picks
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How to fit your mask properly
When putting a mask, a tight seal should be created against your nose and mouth. Use the instructions provided with your mask for correct fit. You should test that a seal has been created by exhaling heavily. Air should not escape through any cracks. If a seal hasn’t been created, re-fit and test again.
How to remove your mask properly
First, be sure to wash your hands thoroughly before putting on your mask. When you’re ready to take it off, do not touch the front of the mask — it could be contaminated. Instead, remove it by pulling the bottom strap over the back of your head, followed by the top strap. Discard the mask, and then wash your hands.
Which states require face masks in public?
States and counties across the US are putting in place requirements for mandatory mask wearing in public spaces. We’re updating our table daily for changes across the United States. Search for your county and/or state below.
|State / County / City||Requirements||More info|
|Birmingham, Alabama||Face masks or coverings required for ages 2+ in all public places.||More info|
|Alaska||Face coverings required for employees of reopening businesses.||More info|
|Arizona||Face masks required for patrons and employees of barbers and cosmetologists. Recommended for all other residents when in public.||More info|
|Alameda County, California||Face masks or coverings when in public spaces.||More info|
|Arvin, California||Face masks required for all city and business employees while at work.||More info|
|Beverly Hills, California||Executive order requiring all people in New York to wear masks or face coverings in public.||More info|
|Burbank, California||Customers and employees to wear masks inside open businesses.||More info|
|Carson City, California||People within Chickasha city limits to wear cloth face masks when out for essential activities.||More info|
|Contra Costa County, California||Face masks or coverings when in public spaces.||More info|
|Fresno, California||Must wear face masks in all essential businesses and public places.||More info|
|Imperial County, California||Must wear face masks when within 6 feet of another person or while outside your home.||More info|
|Inglewood, California||Must wear face masks when entering essential businesses.||More info|
|Long Beach, California||Residents must wear face masks that cover the mouth and nose when out in public.||More info|
|Los Angeles, California||Face masks in grocery stores, pharmacies, on public transportation and at Los Angeles International Airport.||More info|
|Marin County, California||Face masks or coverings when in public spaces.||More info|
|Monterey County, California||Face coverings when in public at or transacting with any essential business, including public transportation.||More info|
|Orange County, California||Face coverings for employees of public-facing retailers, including grocery stores, gas stations and restaurants.||More info|
|Palo Alto, California||Face masks required in all businesses and while taking public transportation.||More info|
|Pasadena, California||Residents across the state must wear non-medical face masks when out in public for essential tasks.||More info|
|Riverside County, California||Residents face up to $1,000 fine for not wearing a face mask while in public.||More info|
|San Bernardino County, California||Residents face up to $1,000 fine for not wearing a face mask while in public.||More info|
|San Diego County, California||Face coverings for ages 2+ in public anywhere you come within 6 feet of other people.||More info|
|San Francisco, California||Residents ages 13+ must cover their faces in most public spaces.||More info|
|San Mateo, California||Face masks or coverings required when in public spaces.||More info|
|Santa Cruz County, California||Face coverings for people age 2 and up when in public.||More info|
|Sonoma County, California||People over the age of 2 to wear a cloth mask when outside of private residence.||More info|
|Milpitas, California||Face masks for people over the age of 6 when inside any essential business within the city of Milpitas.||More info|
|Colorado||Residents face up to $1,000 fine for not wearing a face mask while in public.||More info|
|Connecticut||Face masks when inside any essential business.||More info|
|Delaware||Face masks in public for people over the age of 12.||More info|
|Alachua County, Florida||Face masks or coverings for people age 2+ in public places where social distancing isn't possible.||More info|
|Seminole County, Florida||Face masks or coverings required for employees and patrons of businesses where social distancing isn’t possible.||More info|
|Georgia||Face masks required for employees of all businesses permitted to reopen.||More info|
|Hawaii||Face masks required in most public places and while ordering from drive-thrus. Violators could face up to $5,000 fine or up to a year in prison.||More info|
|Illinois||Face coverings for people age 2+ in public and unable to maintain 6-foot distancing effective May 1st.||More info|
|Indiana||Face coverings required for restaurant employees and employees of personal care services.||More info|
|St. Joseph County, Indiana||Face masks required in all businesses and enclosed public spaces from May 5 through July 4.||More info|
|Kentucky||Face masks while inside of businesses and for employees.||More info|
|Louisiana||Face coverings required for employees of public-facing businesses.||More info|
|Maine||Face masks for people age 2+ in all indoor and outdoor public spaces and while taking public transportation or rideshares from May 1 through May 31.||More info|
|Maryland||Face masks for people ages 9+ when inside any essential business. Face masks are also required for those taking public transportation.||More info|
|Massachusetts||Face masks or coverings for people ages 2+ when in public effective May 6.||More info|
|Michigan||Face coverings over nose and mouth when in public||More info|
|Minnesota||Cloth masks required for employees of reopening retail businesses who may have public contact.||More info|
|Philadelphia, Mississippi||Face masks required inside of any city building.||More info|
|St. Louis, Missouri||Face coverings for all riders of public transit.||More info|
|Nebraska||Face masks required for employees of reopening restaurants that allow indoor dining.||More info|
|Nevada||Face masks required for employees of public-facing businesses and other specified businesses.||More info|
|Nashua, New Hampshire||Face masks required for all customers and employees of public businesses and for everyone in buildings with more than two units.||More info|
|New Hampshire||Face masks required for employees of most public-facing businesses.||More info|
|New Jersey||Must wear face mask when in public spaces and in essential businesses.||More info|
|New Mexico||Face masks required for everyone in all public spaces.||More info|
|New York||Must wear cloth face masks while on the premises of essential businesses, warehouses and construction sites.||More info|
|Ohio||Face coverings for employees, customers, clients and guests at businesses effective May 4.||More info|
|Altus, Oklahoma||Face masks when inside any essential business.||More info|
|Chickasha, Oklahoma||Face masks when inside any essential business.||More info|
|El Reno, Oklahoma||Face masks when inside any essential business.||More info|
|Guthrie, Oklahoma||Face masks in public places.||More info|
|Oregon||Employees of most public-facing businesses must wear face masks or coverings.||More info|
|Pennsylvania||Face masks in grocery stores, restaurants and any other essential business.||More info|
|Rhode Island||Face masks or coverings in public places and for employees of public-facing businesses.||More info|
|Nashville, Tennessee||Face masks required for all public-facing workers.||More info|
|Bexar County, Texas||People over the age of 10 will have to wear a cloth mask in public spaces.||More info|
|Dallas, Texas||Face masks in public places.||More info|
|El Paso County, Texas||Face covering over nose and mouth for any person age 2+ when outside home or residence.||More info|
|Harris County, Texas||Face covering over nose and mouth for any person age 10+ when out in public or with people who don't live with you.||More info|
|Laredo, Texas||Face masks in establishments serving or selling food and all essential businesses.||More info|
|Starr County, Texas||Face masks for employees of public-facing businesses.||More info|
|Utah||Face masks required while in public and for employees of all businesses.||More info|
|Vermont||Face masks required for employees of public-facing businesses.||More info|
|Virginia||Face masks required for all people while in public spaces and wherever large groups can congregate||More info|
|Washington, DC||Masks or face coverings for employees, customers and visitors of hotels, retail food sellers, taxis, ridesharing companies or other private transportation providers.||More info|
|King County, Washington||Face coverings required while on public transit, inside of businesses and in outdoor spaces where social distancing isn’t possible.||More info|
|West Virginia||Face masks required for employees of most reopening businesses.||More info|
|Wyoming||Face masks required for patrons and employees of gyms and personal care businesses.||More info|
Which type of mask do I need?
There’s a lot of information out there about when and where to wear a mask and what type of mask you need for various situations. Use this quick guide to help you decide which kind of face mask best fits your needs.
|Mask type||Who’s it best for?||Description||How long does it last?|
|N95, KN95 respirator masks||Healthcare workers||Blocks at least 95% of airborne particles when worn properly. Adheres to government testing regulations.||Can be reused in certain situations, but must be discarded after coming into contact with bodily fluids, infected patients and in other circumstances. Read the CDC’s full reuse guidelines.|
|Surgical face masks||People who are sick and caretakers||Protects wearers from infecting others. Usually made of 3 layers of melt-blown fabric.||Intended to be discarded after every use.|
|Cloth face masks||The general population when in a public space||Typically made from cotton fabric with elastic or tie straps. Some designs have a pocket to place a removable filter.||Can be washed and reused for weeks or even months, as long as the material maintains its integrity.|
|DIY face masks||The general population when in a public space||Can be homemade using an old T-shirt, bandana, coffee filter or other readily available materials.||Depends on the materials used. Most DIY cloth masks can be washed and reused for weeks or even months, as long as the material maintains its integrity.|
How to make your own face mask
If cloth or N95 masks are hard to find or out of stock online, consider sewing your own. Guides like this one from the New York Times outline the steps that can have you wearing a cloth mask in an hour or two. If you have a small swatch of fabric about the size of a napkin, shoelaces, scissors, and a needle and thread, you can make a mask without additional supplies.
Face mask charities and nonprofits in the US
Businesses giving back
With mask and personal protective equipment (PPE) shortages across the country, a number of companies and nonprofit organizations are donating supplies to healthcare workers and others in need. These are just a few companies that are involved in charitable donations across the US:
- Tom Bihn. This designer bag brand has shifted gears, offering cloth face masks for sale and donating one for every purchase to around 100 essential businesses and workers.
- Stanley Black & Decker has donated three million face masks and other PPE to healthcare workers and first responders.
- The Company Store has donated cotton sheets to Quilting for a Cause, Sewing Masks for Atlanta Hospitals, Sewers of Southwest Wisconsin and other charity organizations involved in making masks.
- Lucky Brand has donated denim and funds to Suay Sew Shop to make masks.
- Paradised. This designer clothing brand was offering non-medical face masks for free for a limited time, and has also donated hundreds of masks to healthcare workers.
- Masks by Whizley is donating 50,000 face masks to organizations in need. The company will donate 250 masks to 200 nonprofits, shelters, nonprofit organizations and frontline workers across the country. If you’re in need of masks, head to its website and fill out the donation request form.
Nonprofits in need of donations: How you can help
- Project C.U.R.E. is committing 100% of its resources toward assisting healthcare workers, first responders and government agencies involved in COVID-19 relief efforts. Project C.U.R.E. is currently in need of donations of hand sanitizer, bleach, PPE, masks, biohazard bags and other priority items. Distribution centers are located in Denver, Tempe, Houston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Kansas City and Nashville.
- GetUsPPE is on a mission to provide vital PPE and other medical supplies to healthcare and front-line workers. Whether you have a small or large amount of masks and other PPE you’d like to donate, you can make a difference.
- DirectRelief is working with public health authorities, nonprofits and businesses across the country and globally to provide PPE and medical equipment to healthcare workers. To get involved in this relief effort, head to the DirectRelief website to donate monthly, fundraise in your community or become a strategic business partner.
What’s the difference between P2, N95 and KN95 face masks?
The difference lies in the testing requirements for each country of origin. P2 masks adhere to European testing requirements, KN95 to Chinese requirements and N95 masks follow US guidelines. All offer nearly the same level of protection, according to a study by respirator company 3M.
|Filter performance||≥ 95%||≥ 95%||≥ 95%||≥ 94%||≥ 94%||≥ 95%|
|Test agent||NaCl||NaCl and paraffin oil||NaCl||NaCl||NaCl and paraffin oil||NaCl|
|Flow rate||85 L/min||95 L/min||85 L/min||95 L/min||95 L/min||85 L/min|
|Total inward leakage (TIL)||N/A||≤ 8% leakage||≤ 8% leakage||≤ 8% leakage||≤ 8% leakage||Inward Leakage measured and included in User Instructions|
|Inhalation resistance||≤ 343 Pa||≤ 70 Pa (at 30L/min)|
≤ 240 Pa (at 95 L/min)
≤ 500 Pa (clogging)
|≤ 350 Pa||≤ 70 Pa (at 30L/min)|
≤ 240 Pa (at 95L/min)
|≤ 70 Pa (at 30L/min)|
≤ 240 Pa (at 95L/min)
|≤ 70 Pa (w/valve)|
≤ 50 Pa (no valve)
|Flow rate||85L/min||Varied – see|
|85L/min||Varied – see|
|Varied – see|
|Exhalation resistance||≤ 245 Pa||≤ 300 Pa||≤ 250 Pa||≤ 120 Pa||≤ 300 Pa||≤ 70 Pa (w/valve) ≤ 50 Pa (no valve)|
|Exhalation valve leakage requirement||Leak rate ≤ 30mL/min||N/A||Depressurization to 0 Pa ≥ 20 sec||Leak rate ≤ 30mL/min||Visual inspection after 300L /min for 30 sec||Depressurization to 0 Pa ≥ 15sec|
|Force applied||-245 Pa||N/A||-1180 Pa||-250 Pa||N/A||-1,470 Pa|
|CO2 clearance requirement||N/A||≤ 1%||≤ 1%||≤ 1%||≤ 1%||≤ 1%|