What is a DUI / DWI and what are the penalties? | finder.com
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What is a DUI / DWI and what are the penalties?

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Compare the factors that contribute to a more severe sentence.

Whether your state refers to it as DUI, DWI, OMVI, OVI or DWAI, the definition is the same: operating a vehicle while under the influence of drugs (including prescription medications) or alcohol. Driving while impaired is a crime in all 50 states.

If you’ve been convicted of driving while intoxicated, the penalties vary by state law, but factors that influence the punishment include whether you’re a first-time offender, your blood alcohol level and the severity of the circumstances. For example, if children were in the car or if someone was injured.

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What do DUI/DWI/OMVI/OVI/DWAI stand for?

  • DUI: Driving under intoxication
  • DWI: Driving while intoxicated
  • OMVI: Operating a motor vehicle impaired
  • OVI: Operating a vehicle impaired
  • DWAI: Driving while ability impaired

What factors affect the penalties for DUI?

The penalties you’ll receive for DUI depend largely on your personal situation. Did you refuse a breathalyzer test? Did you cause an accident that resulted in injury or even death? Are you a multiple offender? These things will result in harsher penalties. But there are also circumstances that can work in your favor.

Factors that can negatively influence the severity of your sentence

  • BAC: The legal BAC or blood alcohol concentration limit (often referred to as blood alcohol level) in all 50 states is 0.08%. Driving with a BAC above 0.08% is illegal. Driving with a particularly high BAC, usually 0.20% or greater, will result in harsher penalties. There are a few exceptions: If you’re a commercial driver, anything above 0.04% can result in a DUI conviction. And if you are caught drinking and driving while under 21, all states impose zero tolerance laws. Any amount of alcohol can result in a DUI conviction. Keep in mind that you can still be convicted of DUI with a BAC below 0.08% if you show signs of impairment.
  • Refusing a breathalyzer test: While the consequences of refusing a breathalyzer test vary by state, many automatically suspend your license for up to 12 months. They also take your unwillingness to cooperate into account during sentencing.
  • Injury: If you injured someone as a result of drinking and driving, the crime can increase from a misdemeanor to a felony. And if someone is killed because of driving while impaired, the driver can be charged with vehicular manslaughter or even vehicular homicide.
  • Prior convictions: If you have prior DUI convictions, most states impose enhanced penalties.
  • Young passengers in car: Drinking and driving with a child in the car or with someone who has special needs can result in a harsher sentence.
  • Suspended driver’s license: If you are caught drinking and driving with a suspended or revoked license, you may receive stricter penalties.
  • Speeding and reckless driving: Driving recklessly or speeding above a certain limit while under the influence can affect your sentence.

Factors that can positively influence your sentence

  • First-time offender: A first DUI conviction that did not cause an injury will most likely not result in jail time. Instead you’ll likely serve time doing an alternative work or community service program.
  • Safe driving: Driving safe and lawfully at the time of the incident, other than the DUI, will count in your favor.
  • Driving record: A safe driving record will help reduce the severity of your sentence.
  • Prescription medication: A judge will take into consideration if your impairment was caused by taking a lawfully prescribed amount of medication.

Penalties for DUI

Sentences for DUI vary widely depending on state laws and your personal situation. Some of the possible penalties you might encounter include:

  • Jail time and community service: A first offense with a low BAC doesn’t typically result in jail time (although it’s not unheard of). What you can expect is to get community service. But even with a first-offense DUI, if it is classified as a felony (because of injury or death, for example), the sentence may be several years in jail. Depending on your state, a second offense typically comes with a mandatory minimum jail sentence.
  • Fines, penalties and fees: Count on plenty of hefty fines no matter your circumstances, which can be upwards of $5,000 or more.
  • Drug and alcohol education programs: Most states offer lesser penalties if you attend a drug and alcohol education program. In some states, an education course is mandatory.
  • Ignition interlock device: Multiple offenders may be ordered to have an ignition interlock device installed in their car. This is a breathalyzer for an individual’s car that disables the engine if the driver’s BAC is not below a certain level.
  • AA meetings: Court-ordered AA meetings may be required depending on your case.
  • Driver’s license: A DUI will affect your license and your driving privileges. You can be assessed points, and have your license suspended or revoked, depending on how many times you’ve been convicted of a DUI and the severity of the offense.
  • Car insurance: A DUI conviction will likely trigger your insurance rates to rise.
  • Limited job opportunities: You may be automatically disqualified from certain jobs, like a school bus driver, if you’ve been convicted of a DUI.

How much does a DUI cost?

The true cost of a DUI goes beyond the fines you’ll pay just for being convicted. You could end up paying thousands of dollars for one DUI. Take a look at an example for how much you’d pay for a DUI in the state of Tennessee, one of the states on the harsher side for punishments.

According to the Tennessee Department of Safety and Homeland Security, which oversees the Department of Motor Vehicles, you’ll pay anywhere from $5,000 to $8,000 for a DUI. The initial fine ranges from $350 to $3,000 depending on the number of DUI convictions you’ve had. Then you factor in fines, car insurance rate increases, driver training and court costs. You’ll also lose income and possibly your employment from jail time, which ranges from two days to five months depending on the number of convictions.

PenaltyCost
Towing fee$75
Fine$350-3,000
Bail$125
Defense attorney$2,000
Court costs$200
License reinstatement fee$300
Insurance premium increase$2,000
IID installation$300
Alcohol education program$300
TOTAL$5,650 – $8,650

Civil lawsuits

In addition to criminal charges for your DUI conviction, you could face a civil lawsuit — where individuals seek to recoup expenses resulting from the DUI. For example, someone could choose to sue you for physical or emotional damages caused by the incident.

How is a DWAI different from a DUI?

A DWAI means your driving is somewhat impaired, but not quite to the dangerous level of a DUI. For example, in the state of New York, it’s considered a DUI if your BAC (blood alcohol content) is over .08, and a DWAI between .05 and .07.

Driving under the influence could have much higher penalties than a DWAI, which is only considered a traffic infraction in many states. Both charges can lead to fines, a jail sentence and a suspended license. For example, in Colorado, a DWAI could lead to fines up to $500 and two to 180 days of jail time, while the charges for a DUI could be as much as $1,000 in fines with jail time of five days to a year and 96 hours of community service.

If charged with a DUI, you might also be able to reduce the charge to a DWAI. Talk to a lawyer to find out your options.

Bottom line

As always, don’t get behind the wheel of a car if you’ve been drinking. Get a taxi or an Uber, or, better yet, plan ahead and select a designated driver.

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