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How do dividends work?

Learn about the different types, how they're applied and how you're taxed on the revenue.

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When you buy stock in a company, you’re effectively buying a piece of that company. Your piece makes you a part-owner, and you’re entitled to a share of the company’s earnings — which comes in the form of dividends.

Learn about the different types of dividends, how they’re applied and how they affect your taxable income in this guide.

What is a dividend?

A dividend is a portion of a company’s earnings returned to shareholders as a cash payment into a trading account. Dividends are typically distributed to shareholders quarterly, though some companies pay out dividends monthly or even twice a year.

Let’s pretend, for example, that a cleaning company is offering a dividend payment of €0.05 for each share held. If you owned 1,000 shares, you’d receive a dividend of €50. However, if you owned 10,000 shares, your dividend payment would be much larger at €500.

What is the ex-dividend date?

To receive a company’s dividend payout, you must hold or own the shares prior to its ex-dividend date. If you buy shares on or after the ex-dividend date and hold them to the next date, you are eligible for the next dividend payment, if there is one.

Not all companies pay dividends

Dividends are not guaranteed to shareholders. Companies decide what the value of a dividend will be, if they decide to payout a dividend at all. Also, just because a company pays a large dividend one quarter or year doesn’t mean it will do it again the next time.

Smaller or newer companies may choose to reinvest any profits into the company to help it grow, rather than pay shareholders a dividend. This tactic is also good for investors, because if the company’s growing, the value of its stock will likely grow too.

What is the dividend yield?

The dividend yield is a percentage that indicates the value of a dividend payment in relation to the cost of the stock. It’s calculated by determining what percentage of the stock price is returned to the investor as income.

The dividend yield helps investors compare similar companies, helping to give you an idea of which one offers a better return on your money in the form of a dividend.

Dividend yield example

Let’s go back to our cleaning company, with its dividend payment of €0.05 per share. If the current share price was €2 per share, the dividend yield would be a lot better at 10%. Because the yield is calculated using the share price, the yield will change daily as the share price changes.

Types of dividends

Dividends come in different types, but not all companies pay all — or any of them to shareholders:

  • Cash dividend. The most common dividend, it’s paid directly to your investment account as cash.
  • Stock dividend. This dividend payment is paid in additional shares of stock, rather than cash.
  • Property dividend. These are payouts of physical property, such as a product that has a fair market value.
  • Scrip dividend. If short on cash, a company can issue a promissory note to pay the dividend at a future date along with interest.
  • Hybrid dividend. This can be a combination of any other dividend, though it’s often a mix of cash and stock.

Paying tax on dividends

Because dividend payments are a form of income, you must report them as taxable income when you complete your tax return. In Ireland, tax on dividends is called dividend withholding tax (DWT). There are some who may be exempt from this tax such as a non-resident of Ireland.

How much tax you pay on your dividend depends on several different factors, including your tax status and the type of interest or dividends you earn.

    How does a dividend reinvestment plan work?

    Some companies offer what’s called a dividend reinvestment plan — commonly called a DRIP. A DRIP allows you to opt-in to using your dividends to buy more shares of stock in the company instead of receiving the dividend payment as cash.

    In this way, you’re able to use the money to buy more stock without paying brokerage fees. It’s also a passive way to increase your position in a company gradually over time with little effort. Once you opt in, it all happens in the background automatically.

    A downside of opting into a DRIP is that you don’t get to choose the price at which you’d like to buy more shares of stock. Instead, they’re automatically bought on your behalf on the date of the dividend payment.

    How to compare dividend-paying stocks

    When comparing dividend-paying companies, answer four key questions to better understand what to expect:

    • How often are dividends paid? Some companies pay dividends quarterly, but it’s not uncommon for companies to pay dividends once or twice a year.
    • Has the company declared dividends? Companies will often declare their dividend payments weeks or months in advance.
    • Are dividends growing in value? Take a look back at the dividends paid by each company over previous years. If the value of the dividend has gradually increased, it’s a sign the company is growing and will potentially continue to increase its dividend.
    • What’s the dividend yield? Depending on the yield, you might be able to outpace your passive earnings on a high-interest savings account.

    Bottom line

    Dividends can add value to a stock, providing the opportunity for an ongoing stream of income or reinvesting for faster compounding over time. But not all dividends are alike.

    If dividends are important to you, research a company’s history of dividends and the type of dividend it typically pays to see if it’s best for your portfolio and investment strategy. Then compare your trading platform options to find the best fit for your goals and experience.

    Disclaimer: This information should not be interpreted as an endorsement of futures, stocks, ETFs, CFDs, options or any specific provider, service or offering. It should not be relied upon as investment advice or construed as providing recommendations of any kind. Futures, stocks, ETFs and options trading involves substantial risk of loss and therefore are not appropriate for all investors. Trading CFDs and forex on leverage comes with a higher risk of losing money rapidly. Past performance is not an indication of future results. Consider your own circumstances, and obtain your own advice, before making any trades.

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