Death and gravestone symbolism {Infographic} | finder.com

Death icons in different cultures – Infographic

Iconographic interpretation of death in different cultures

Death is life’s ending. Because everyone who is born eventually dies, it’s the center of many traditions and organizations. Customs relating to death are a feature of every culture around the world.

Part of those customs are symbols which signify or try to make sense of the phenomena.

Death-and-gravestone-symbolism

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Death

Death comes in all shapes and forms around the world, here are the ones to look out for.

Death itself

  1. Skull, human
    • Calaveras – Mexico, whimsical caricatures
  2. Skeleton, human (sometimes animal)
    • Calacas – Mexico, whimsical caricatures
  3. Skull and crossbones (in Europe also symbol for piracy and poison)
  4. Decayed cadavers (medieval Europe, artistic depictions)
  5. Scythe (a curved, sharp blade at the end of a long handle, held by the Grim Reaper)
  6. Coffins
  7. Tombs, tombstones, grave
  8. Christian cross (crucifixion of Jesus)
  9. Wheel (Buddhism, perpetual cycle of death and rebirth that happens in samsara)
  10. Passage of time and the fragility of life
    • Clocks
    • Hourglasses
    • Sundials
    • Candles (passage of time that burns itself out)
  11. Animals – some feed on the dead
    • Crows, ravens, vultures
    • Cats
    • Owls
    • Moths
    • Bats
  12. Images of afterlife
    • Winged angels, angel-like creatures dwelling among clouds — Christian
    • Black and white ram that will be slain (the death of death) — Islamic

Death personified

  1. Grim Reaper (skeletal figure carrying large scythe, clothed in black cloak)
  2. Banshee (Irish, omen of death in the shape of a woman)
  3. Ancient Egypt Gods Osiris & Ptah (mummies, governed Egyptian afterlife)
  4. One of the four horseman, rides a pale horse (Book of Revelations, Bible)
  5. Ancient Greece
    • Thantos (bearded and winged man not portrayed as evil)
    • The Keres (Thantos’ sisters, the spirits of violent death portrayed as evil, feeding on blood)
  6. Celtic and Breton folklore
    • Ankou (spirit of the last person in the community who died; haggard figure, wide hat, long white hair or a skeleton with a revolving head; drives a wagon or cart with a creaking axle, wagon is piled high with corpses)
  7. Baltic
    • Giltine (old, ugly woman with long blue nose and deadly poisonous tongue)
  8. Hindu Scriptures — Buddhist
    • Yama (Lord of Death, rides a black buffalo, carries a rope lasso)

Color

  1. Black
    • Cherokee (problems and death)
    • Western (funerals, death, Halloween)
  2. White
    • China (death, mourning)
    • Japan (white carnation, death)
    • Eastern (funerals, mourning)
  3. Red
    • Celtic (death, afterlife)
    • South Africa (mourning)
    • Western (red ribbon, symbol of people who have died of AIDS)
    • Western (red poppies, flower used to commemorate the death from WWI & WWII)
  4. Yellow
    • Egypt (mourning)
    • Eastern (proof against evil, for the dead, sacred, imperial)
  5. Purple
    1. Thailand (mourning, widows)

Other

  1. Cypress tree (planted in graveyards, believed to preserve bodies)
  2. Yew tree (ancient Europe, planted in graveyards and churchyards all over England and Celtic countries)
  3. Flags at half-mast (sign of mourning)
  4. Season of the dead (Oct. 31-Nov. 2, opportunity to make peace with the dead)
  5. Beans (Romans used beans as charms connected with dead)

Gravestone

Religious

  1. Agnus Dei (represents the Lamb of God)
  2. Saint Matthew (one of the four evangelists, was often represented as a winged man)
  3. Baha’i symbol (Baha’i Faith, a monotheistic religion)
  4. Bell (church bell; religion)
  5. Bible or book (often used on the gravestones of ministers, clergymen and devoted religious people)
  6. Bird (peace, messenger of God, usually doves)
  7. Cohanim Hands (Jewish symbol that represents members of the priestly tribe of Aaron)
  8. Cross (Christianity)
  9. Cross and Crown (victory and Christianity)
  10. Eastern Cross (three bars that symbolize the cross Christ was crucified on) — Russian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, and Greek Catholic
    • Top bar represents the title board
    • Middle bar represents the board on which the Lord’s hands were nailed
    • Bottom bar represents the footrest
  11. Eucharist (body and blood of Christ, usually found on graves of priests and nuns)
  12. Fish (Christian symbol)
  13. Grapes (Blood of Christ)
  14. Hand pointing down (hand of God descending from heaven)
  15. Hands praying (pious devotion)
  16. Hands reaching (usually the hand of God reaching down from the heavens, and the hand of the deceased reaching up to grab it in greeting)
  17. Harp (symbolizes praise to God, often carved with a broken string, representing a break in mortal life)
  18. IHS (stands for the first three letters of Jesus’ name in the Greek alphabet, also stands for “in hoc signo”, Latin for “by this sign we conquer”, referring to the cross)
  19. Passion Flower (Christ’s passion)
  20. Pitcher (often found on graves of prohibitionists, represents virtue and control; if it is found on a Jewish grave, it symbolizes a Levite, a person who was responsible for cleaning the hands of the Temple Priest)
  21. Rosary (almost always found on Catholic gravestones, symbolizes devotion to Mary and constant prayer for the deceased)
  22. Scroll (scriptures)
  23. Shih Tzu of Fo (guardians of Buddha)
  24. Sunflower (devotion to God)
  25. Tablets (usually two tablets joined, Ten Commandments)
  26. XP, overlapped (the Chi-Rho, one of the oldest Christian symbols; XP are the first two letters of the Greek word for Christ)
  27. Snake with apple (sin)

Afterlife

  1. Angel (guide to heaven)
  2. Anchor (hope or eternal life)
  3. Ankh (Egyptian symbol of eternal life)
  4. Apple (salvation, sometimes sin)
  5. Arch (passage to heaven)
  6. Boat (a voyage; crossing over to the other side)
  7. Century Plant (immortality; everlasting life)
  8. Crown (victory or triumph over death)
  9. Dogwood (resurrection, sacrifice, and eternal life)
  10. Garland (victory in death)
  11. Gate (passage from Earth to heaven)
  12. Hand pointing up (hand pointing up to heaven)
  13. Hand writing (writing names in the book of life)
  14. Morning glory (the Resurrection; also beauty, youth, and love)
  15. Palm tree or frond (victory over death)
  16. Star of David (divine protection)
  17. Sun (soul rising to heaven)
  18. Winged sun (Egyptian, the journey of the sun and the spiritual attributes of the heavens)
  19. Wreath (victory in death)
  20. Anvil (creation or forging of the universe)
  21. Hammer (the power of creation)
  22. Lotus (creation and rebirth)
  23. Moon (rebirth)
  24. Scarab (Egyptian, spontaneous creation; the renewal of life)
  25. Shell (baptism or rebirth)
  26. Star (six-pointed star represents creation)

Death

  1. Arrow (mortality and martyrdom)
  2. Bones (death, decay)
  3. Broken wheel (end of life; a break in the circle or wheel of life)
  4. Butterfly (resurrection, and also the soul leaving the body)
  5. Clasped hands (farewell to earthly existence)
  6. Column (draped or broken column represents the break in earthly to heavenly life; the draped arch also symbolizes mourning)
  7. Fallen tree (mortality, death)
  8. Flame or torch (eternity, an upside down torch represents the end of life)
  9. Horse (death; white horses represent good, while black horses represent evil)
  10. Coffin (mortality and death)
  11. Lyre (often have a broken string, symbolizing the end of life; lyres are usually found on the graves of musicians)
  12. Plow (the harvest; the reaping of life)
  13. Poppy (eternal sleep)
  14. Rooster (an awakening or calling attention to the person’s death; also symbolises vigilance)
  15. Sickle (reaping of life)
  16. Skull (death and mortality; winged skull symbolizes the ascension into heaven)
  17. Skull and crossbones (mortality, death)
  18. Sleeping child (victorian symbol for death)
  19. Spade (mortality and death; also used as a Masonic symbol)
  20. Wheat (harvest, usually found on older peoples’ gravestones)

Time

  1. Alpha and Omega (first and last letters of the Greek alphabet; symbolizes the beginning and the end)
  2. Circle (eternal life; no beginning, no end)
  3. Clock (mortality, death; the passage of time)
  4. Hourglass (passage of time)
  5. Man with hourglass and sickle (Father Time, an old man with a beard)
  6. Snake, hooped (eternal life; no beginning, no end)

Qualties of a person

  1. Beehive (human industry, faith, education, and domestic virtues; often used by the Freemasons and Independent Order of Odd Fellows)
  2. Calla Lily (beauty)
  3. Corn (rebirth, fertility)
  4. Cornucopia, also known as the “Horn of Plenty” (symbolizes an abundant, fruitful life; a symbol of the harvest, which in turn symbolizes the end of life)
  5. Daisy (innocence; usually found on graves of young children)
  6. Dog (loyalty, fidelity, watchfulness and vigilance)
  7. Easter lily (purity, chastity)
  8. Fern (humility and sincerity)
  9. Lamp (wisdom, faithfulness)
  10. Lion (strength)
  11. Menorah (Jewish symbol; usually marks the grave of a righteous woman)
  12. Oak leaf (longevity)
  13. Owl (wisdom, watchfulness)
  14. Ox (patience, strength)
  15. Rabbit (humility, gentleness, self-sacrifice)
  16. Rose (beauty)
  17. Sphinx (guardian; represents strength and protection)
  18. Tulip (love and passion)
  19. Woman holding anchor (hope)
  20. Woman holding cross (faith)

Characteristics of the deceased

The Person
  1. Heart (person’s spirit or soul)
  2. Urn (the soul)
Profession
  1. Artillery (cannons, military service)
  2. Comedy and tragedy masks (drama and theatre, also known as theatre masks)
  3. Eagle (Civil War veterans)
  4. Flag (usually found on veterans’ graves)
  5. Mortar and pestle (usually found on the gravestones of pharmacists and sometimes doctors)
  6. Music (usually found on the graves of musicians)
  7. Palette and brushes (usually found on artists’ gravestones)
  8. Piano (symbolizes someone who was fond of playing the piano)
  9. Rifle (found on the graves of military members and hunters)
  10. Scales (marks the grave of someone who was in the legal profession)
  11. Ship (found on the graves of sailors; many times they are found on graves of people who died at sea)
  12. Sword (crossed swords are often seen on the gravestones of veterans, especially officers)
Child
  1. Broken bud or branch (someone who died an untimely or premature death)
  2. Hummingbird (infants)
  3. Lamb (child; innocence)
  4. Empty shoes (loss of a child, usually one shoe is overturned)
  5. Vacant chair (death of a child)
Relationship
  1. Broken chain link (loss in the family)
  2. Drapery (mourning)
  3. Laurel (the “evergreen” memory of the deceased)
  4. Ivy (friendship)
  5. Knot (tied knot symbolizes marriage and unity)
  6. Thistle (Earthly sorrow)
  7. Weeping woman (mourning, sorrow)
  8. Willow tree (sadness or mourning)

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Sources:

Gravestone symbolism and meanings
  • http://www.graveaddiction.com/symbol.html
  • http://www.olivetreegenealogy.com/misc/grave.shtml
Death symbolism and meanings
  • http://library.thinkquest.org/16665/symbols.htm
  • http://painting.about.com/cs/inspiration/a/symbolsdeath.htm
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbols_of_death
  • http://symboldictionary.net/?p=2551
  • http://www.deardeath.com/religious_symbols_of_death.htm
  • http://www.care2.com/greenliving/fascinating-symbols-of-death.html

William Eve

Will is a personal finance writer for finder specialising in content on insurance. While he cannot give personal advice to clients, Will enjoys explaining the intricacies of different types of protective cover to help individuals and businesses find affordable cover that won't leave them underinsured.

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