What that 5-star rating really means.
A car’s safety rating is one of the most important factors to consider when comparing different makes and models. Understanding how they work and which organizations you can trust can help ensure you invest in a car that meets your needs.
What determines a car’s safety rating?
A car’s safety rating is determined by a series of crash tests and its safety features. There are two organizations both automakers and consumers rely on to test and rate car safety: the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). These set the standards for how cars are rated and analyze different criteria to paint a full picture of how well a car can keep its occupants safe.
NHTSA safety ratings
After a series of crash tests, the NHTSA bases its ratings on your likelihood of being injured — with a 5-star rating going to the safest vehicle possible. This typically means that the vehicle has scored “good” on multiple crash tests. NHTSA ratings are often included on car comparison websites to help you quickly discern which cars are safest.
IIHS safety ratings
The IIHS conducts more strenuous tests on vehicles, putting them through different scenarios to rate them as one of the following:
A car that has good crashworthiness — meaning it limits injury and protects the people inside — is typically given a “good” rating.
Why does a safety rating matter?
The safety rating on a car can be a critical component when it comes to saving your life. According to the IIHS, the driver of a vehicle rated as “good” is 70% less likely to die in a left-side collision than the driver in a vehicle rated as “poor.” When you’re selecting your next car, check its safety ratings from both the NHTSA and IIHS to ensure you’re making a solid decision based on more than just getting a good price at the dealership.
What does the crash test process involve?
It depends on which organization you get your car safety ratings from. The NHTSA and IIHS both conduct comprehensive testing, and knowing your car ranks well with both can give you some added peace of mind during your shopping experience.
NHTSA crash tests
The NHTSA bases its score on three to four tests depending on the build of the car:
IIHS crash tests
Because the IIHS doesn’t rely on government funding, it’s able to conduct more strenuous tests under more conditions. When giving a car a rating, it will conduct these seven tests to ensure a car is safe to drive:
Shopping for a car locally?
What car safety features are considered necessary?
The NHTSA states that standard safety equipment like air bags, seat belts and a tire pressure monitoring system are three factors you should take note of when inspecting a car. Driver assistance technology like forward collision warning, lane departure warning, rearview cameras and automatic emergency braking are also helpful in keeping cars safe — and many new cars come standard with one or more of these.
The IIHS doesn’t have any specific recommendations, but it does have information on these features as well as headlights, speeding and distracted driving on its website. You can also find details about your state’s seatbelt laws. Even if you aren’t legally required to wear your seat belt, they saved nearly 15,000 lives in 2017 according to the NHTSA.
Ready to buy? Compare car loan providers
Understanding how a car’s safety is determined is critical when you’re shopping for your next vehicle. To learn which cars rate highest, you can read our guide to the safest family cars. And when you’re ready to buy, compare your car loan options to ensure you’re getting the best deal available to you.