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Investment risk: An introduction

Different types of investments come with different levels of risk. Make sure you're comfortable with the investments you choose.

When thinking about money, risk is inescapable. Take out your wallet and pour a few coins into your hand. You probably have an idea of what you can buy with them—maybe a bar of chocolate, maybe a pack of gum. But even those small metal disks are risky things that change in value.

The price of goods changes, inflation reduces what your money can buy from year to year, and so on. A dollar will always be worth a dollar, but its buying power could diminish.

When you invest, you’re hoping that the value of your investments will rise over time and both outpace inflation and cover the fees you’ve paid to whoever handles your assets. But the only reason investment works is because it is inherently risky. Share prices vary over time, dividends grow and are cut, bond yields rise and fall, companies soar in value and go bust.

Find out about the different types of risk, which assets tend to carry less risk and compare some investment providers.

Types of risk

An inescapable part of investing is that you cannot reap any reward without taking a proportionate amount of risk. There are myriad different types of risk:

  • Capital risk is the risk that the value of your assets will fall.
  • Inflation risk is the risk of cash losing buying power.
  • Counterparty risk is the risk of an organization defaulting on its debts.
  • Specific risk is the risk of something unforeseen happening to a specific company.
  • Shortfall risk is the risk you won’t have enough money (which could be because you didn’t take enough, er, risk).

Types of asset

Different asset types are generally perceived to carry different levels of risk – and correspondingly, different levels of potential reward. Let’s take a closer look at the main asset types below.


Cash is seen as the least risky asset, because although its value does change through inflation, or relative to other currencies, its buying power within the UK will tend stay fairly static. But remember the risk/reward trade-off. If you earn any interest on your cash it will be quite low, and likely not enough to outpace the erosive power of inflation.

Government bonds

Government bonds are typically seen as the next-least risky asset class. A bond is essentially a loan you make to a government or company, on which it pays a set amount of interest over a set amount of time. Governments only very rarely default on their bond payments so government bonds are seen as safe, although they will fluctuate in value more than cash.

Corporate bonds

Next up on the risk-o-metre are corporate bonds. These are more risky than government bonds because companies are more likely to go bust and default.

Bonds from larger more established companies are known as investment-grade bonds, while those issued by smaller, less established companies are known as high-yield bonds because they have to pay a higher rate of interest to attract buyers. The higher the yield, the riskier the bond.

Real estate investment

With property—usually commercial property if it’s held in a fund—you have the opportunity for 2 types of gain: capital gains, when the value of the properties rises; and rent payments you get from tenants, which counts as income. The property market rises and falls unpredictably, but property is a bit of a wild card in terms of where in the risk scale it fits.

Investing in real estate


Stocks, also known as equity, are the riskiest and most volatile of the mainstream types of asset. There are, of course, other assets you could buy—art, wine, cars—that would be riskier, but those are generally not for beginners. Share prices vary a lot, and there is a real chance you’ll lose money.

But equally, of all the assets we’ve covered here, equities provide the best chance of maximizing your capital growth. There are many companies that pay dividends, or a portion of the company’s profits paid out to shareholders. Using dividends to buy more shares (a process called reinvesting) is a powerful tool for growing your portfolio.

Which investment is best?

Whenever you invest, you are taking on risk. The more risk you take on, the more you stand to gain – but the more you could also lose. More risk also means the value of your portfolio could change more dramatically and less predictably.

If you think you will need your money in less than 5 years or so then investing might not be a good idea for you. However, if you plan on locking your money away for a long time, you will have more time to gain back any losses you might make, and more chance of accumulating a greater amount of wealth than you would have if you’d kept it in cash, where it would be subject to the erosive effects of inflation.

Compare stock trading options

Check out some of Canada’s most popular online stock trading platforms. Compare your options before opening a stock trading account to find a platform that will give you access to the markets you want with a fee structure that works for you.

Name Product Available Asset Types Stock Fee Option Fee Account Fee ETF Transaction Cost Feature Table description
Wealthsimple Trade
Stocks, ETFs
Get a $50 bonus when you open a Wealthsimple Trade account and deposit and trade at least $150.
Pay no commissions when you trade Canadian stocks and ETFs with Wealthsimple Trade.
BMO InvestorLine
Stocks, Bonds, Options, Mutual Funds, ETFs, GICs
$9.95 + $1.25 per options contract
$0 if conditions met, otherwise $25/quarter
$0 - $9.95
Buy and sell a select group of Canada’s most popular ETFs without paying commissions.

An easy-to-use online trading platform with access to research, tools, and the option to access InvestorLine adviceDirect for additional professional support.
Scotia iTRADE
Bonds, Options, Mutual Funds, ETFs, GICs, International Equities
$9.99 + $1.25 contract ($4.99 + $1.25 contract if completed 150 trades or more a quarter)
$9.99 ($4.99 if completed 150 trades or more a quarter)
Pay no annual account fees.
Buy, sell and trade ETFs, Equities, Options and more with competitive commissions.
CIBC Investor's Edge
Stocks, Bonds, Options, Mutual Funds, ETFs
$4.95 - $6.95
$4.95 - $6.95 (+$1.25 per contract)
$0 if conditions met, otherwise $100/year
$4.95 - $6.95 is applicable for online stock, ETF and option trades only. Pay $4.95 when you qualify as an Active Trader (trade 150+ times per quarter).
An intuitive and easy-to-use platform with access to a variety of tools that help you make smart decisions and trade with confidence.
Interactive Brokers
Stocks, Bonds, Options, ETFs, Currencies, Futures
Min. $1.00, Max. 0.5% of trade value
$1.50 min. per order
Min. $1.00, Max. 0.5% of trade value
Extensive trading capabilities and global investment tracking.
Access market data 24 hours a day, six days a week and invest in global stocks, options, futures, currencies, bonds and funds from one single account.
Stocks, Bonds, Options, Mutual Funds, ETFs, GICs, International Equities, Precious Metals
$9.95 + $1 per contract
Get $50 in free trades when you fund your account with a minimum of $1,000.
Opt for self-directed investing and save on fees or get a pre-built portfolio and take some of the guesswork out.
Qtrade Direct Investing
Stocks, Bonds, Options, Mutual Funds, ETFs, GICs
$6.95 - $8.75
$6.95 - $8.75 + $1.25 per contract
$0 if conditions met, otherwise $25/quarter
$0 - $8.75
Get up to 50 free trades. Be one of the first 100 new Qtrade clients to use the promo code 50FREETRADES and deposit a minimum of $10,000 (or top up to $15,000 to get $150 transfer fees waived). Valid until September 30, 2021.
Qtrade Direct Investing offers low trading commissions and an easy-to-use platform with access to powerful tools and a wide selection of investment options. Trade 100 ETFs free of charge and thousands more for $8.75 or lower.

Compare up to 4 providers

Disclaimer: This information should not be interpreted as an endorsement of futures, stocks, ETFs, CFDs, options or any specific provider, service or offering. It should not be relied upon as investment advice or construed as providing recommendations of any kind. Futures, stocks, ETFs and options trading involves substantial risk of loss and therefore are not appropriate for all investors. Trading CFDs and forex on leverage comes with a higher risk of losing money rapidly. Past performance is not an indication of future results. Consider your own circumstances, and obtain your own advice, before making any trades.

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